“When it comes to the extreme cold, infants and the elderly are particularly at risk, and those who work outdoors, but anyone can be affected,” said Dr. Joseph Schmidt, vice chair, Emergency Medicine, Baystate Medical Center.
Dr. Schmidt noted the most common cold-related problems resulting from prolonged exposure to the cold are hypothermia and frostbite.
Hypothermia is signaled in adults by confusion, sleepiness, reduced breathing and heart rate, and extreme shivering, while infants may have bright red, cold skin and very low energy.
“What is concerning in the case of hypothermia is that your body has used up its stored energy resulting in low body temperature which affects the brain and a person’s ability to think clearly, so someone may not realize what is happening to them or be able to do anything about it,” said Dr. Schmidt.
He noted a body temperature below 95 degrees F requires emergency medical attention.
While waiting for help to arrive, or for those whose temperature has not fallen to dangerous levels, begin warming immediately by getting the person indoors and removing any wet clothing he or she may be wearing. Warm the center of the body first – chest, neck, head and groin area – using an electric blanket, if possible. Or use skin-to-skin contact under loose, dry layers of blankets, clothing, towels or sheets. Warm beverages can also help increase body temperature. Once the body temperature has increased, keep the person dry and wrapped in a warm blanket, including the head and neck.
Dr. Schmidt offers the following tips to help prevent hypothermia this winter:
• Dress in layers - it is better to be wearing three thin layers of clothing than one bulky outfit.
• Avoid the wind and getting wet while outdoors - both promote heat loss from the body.
• Avoid alcohol, certain medications and smoking - they will diminish your blood flow in the cold.
• Plan outdoor activities so that you can take breaks inside to warm up.
• Your mother always told you to wear a hat. It’s true - heat loss occurs through the head.
Symptoms of frostbite include numbness and a white cast to the skin in the affected area.
“The most susceptible body parts are fingers, toes, ear lobes, and the nose,” saidDr. Schmidt.
He suggests warming the frozen part to room temperature by immersing it in warm (not hot) water to avoid burns to the skin. Frozen tissue is fragile and can be damaged easily. Also, avoid warming with high heat from radiators, fireplaces or stoves and avoid rubbing or breaking blisters.
If in doubt about possible frostbite, consult your physician or seek emergency treatment.
Cold weather also puts a strain on your heart during the winter months, noted Dr. Schmidt.
“When you are out in the cold, your arteries tend to tighten which restricts blood flow and, as a result, reduces the oxygen supply to your heart. The end result could be a heart attack,” said Dr. Schmidt.
“It is especially important if you have heart disease or high blood pressure to avoid any sudden exertion when outdoors in the cold. Check with your doctor before shoveling snow or undertaking any other strenuous work outdoors,” he added.
For more information about Baystate Medical Center, visit baystatehealth.org/bmc.